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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

252                                       FLORA   TNDICA.
vegetation almost identical with that of Java. The surface,
except where clearances have heen made by man, is covered
with a shady forest, rendered almost impenetrable by a dense
jungle of rattan (Calamus), a genus which attains its maxi-
mum development in the Malayan region. Erect palms are also
very numerous; chiefly of the genera Areca, Arenga, Liwala,
Cocos, Corypha, and Sagus. On the coast, Nipa covers im-
mense tracts. Orchids, terrestrial as well as epiphytical, Sci-
taminea, Aracece, and ferns, abound in the forests, which con-
sist chiefly of gigantic Terebintkace«>, Sapindacea, Meliacea,
Garciniacea, Dipterocarpe®, TemttrwrniacetB, LM/itmlnos<&,
Myrtacecsy Combretacta, Lauracea, oaks, and figs. DiJIeni-
aceffi, nutmegs, Sapotacea, including Isonandra Gutta (the
gutta-percha plant), aticl Anonacea, form ait unusually large
proportion of the flora. Podocarpua, DacrydiitM,, and Dam-
mar a aro the only conifers, but there are several species of
Gnetum and of Cycas. On the higher hills a ii»w species of
Gtwltfterifi, Rhododendron, Vaccinia, and other plants of ilic
sub-tcmpevate zone, indicate the commencement of that rich
and varied flora which covers the middle and upper parts of
the mountains of Java and the Khasia, and is also founci in
the temperate Sikkim Himalaya.
Amongst the many rare and curious genera which occur in
the forests of the Malayan Peninsula, may- be mentioned
GrammytophyUum, the most gigantic Orchid known, Kihara,
many Nepenthes, several curious genera of AriMoloMff^ as
Thottia, Lobbia, and Axiphonia, anomalous Bunnantme, many
Antidesmefs, including Eremostackys and PhylocreneiK9 us
lodes, Cardiopteris, and Phytocrem itself, many siTigular Ola *
cinea, Santalacea, Loranthacea, Menispermea, cttc. The cul-
tivated frnits are tlie mangosteen, durian, and nutmeg, none of
which thrive elsewhere in India; with many varieties of Citnts
and pine-apple. The littoral plants are to a gre^t extent the
same as those of Pegu ami the Sunderbuuds, hut there arc
more species of mangrove and of palms. Enhalm "vJ other
oceanic Cuulinia occur beneath high-water mark. The ap-